german pow camps ww2 conditions

Cases in Lazaret: Inpatients & Outpatients. We were assembled in 2 large sheds where we found kriegies from East Camp. When we arrived, we were the first kriegies apart from 20 or so who had been ‘purged’ from the North Compound. A theatrical group developed and a band consisting of a pianist, a trumpeter, a drummer, and two guitarists, and, of course, activities related to escaping. Other topics were used to give instruction and a library was started with books sent over the years to POWs. Map of prisoner of war camps in world war II Germany World War II - Prisoners of War - Stalag Luft I A collection of stories, photos, art and information on Stalag Luft I . Around 10,000 German prisoners were sent to Florida, in two major camps: Camp Blanding and Camp Gordon Johnston. At the close of World War II, the prisoners were returned to their homeland under the terms of surrender. In the third case, a kriegie was walking round the camp some time after ‘The Great Escape’ and touched the rail inside the fence of barbed wire. After Christmas, we were moved to Zagan, Upper Sil-esia (in the former Polish territory) by cattle-truck (8 horses, 40 men) to Belaria compound of Stalag Luft 3. Dr. Monteuuis was a very unusual man. All prisoners looked forward to deliveries of Red Cross food parcels which contained ‘luxury’ items such as butter, biscuits, chocolate and condensed milk as well as dried fruits and vegetables. Of these, one in three died from starvation, work, punishments or from diseases for which there were no medicines to treat. But, for some former soldiers, it was a path to rehabilitation. Life in captivity can hardly be called a piece of cake. The Senior British Officer (SBO) was a Group Captain who abjured us to wash or shower daily (cold water but we could get an occasional hot water dunk in a wooden tub) and shave at least every other day. After interrogation, we were put back into our cells for a day and another interrogation and after that taken to the transit camp proper. He recalls making toys one … Erysipelas…2 or 3 cases occurred and responded to hot dry packs and Prontosil. The Russians were then at Breslau (Wroclaw) some 35 km away and snow was 1/2 metre thick on the ground and still falling. 27%. My arm was taken out of plaster at the end of January 1944 and I spent 1/2 hour 3 times a day “climbing up the wall” to overcome the bruising and avoid ankylosis. This was a POW camp for Allied Officers who were flying personnel. We could not store much because the Germans used to puncture all the tins at each end and the food would go bad if left too long. Soccer was popular and so was cricket. We were housed for the night in the barns of a farm run by Poles who gave the medical team a room to use for sick parade, which took about an hour. We were given barley soup and a bread ration. Rhinitis was treated with inhalations of menthol.. Sore Throats and Tonsillitis received hot salt-water gargles. In the time from January 1944 to January a year later, the camp increased from the original 50-60 to over 1100 men. 20 Horrific Details about Japanese POW Camps During World War II By Steve The term “prisoner of war” dates as far back as 1660, recognizing an individual detained by an enemy power in the course of an armed conflict. This issue was circumnavigated, however, by a decision made in 1943 to declare German soldiers taken prisoner not as POWs, but as Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEF). Cotton bandages of various widths were available, and we used to wash the soiled ones to use again. Out into the cold night air (it was about 2020 hours) count 5, pull the rip cord, a jagging thrust In the thighs and back and… utter silence. They were set … By March 1944, conditions began to improve, but for economic reasons: As its manpower was swallowed up in the war effort, the USSR turned to POWs Prisoners often improvised their own brick stoves and cooked their food in empty milk tins. Guards marched on each side of the column at about 20-25 metre intervals. Initially in charge was Hauptman Wemer until the number of POW’s grew and the Oberst (Colonel) arrived. He had very black hair and a black moustache which came down over his mouth and which he frequently chewed, when he was not smoking. Few of the 91,000 Germans captured at the end of the Battle of Stalingrad ever returned to Germany after the war. Since the Red Cross parcels came from Geneva, we realised supplies would drop off so we tried to store food. I was the camp doctor’s first patient at the Lazaret. German Prisoner of War Camps during World War II If you want to see a larger version of this map then click on the thumbnail map at the bottom of this page. Life in the camps was a vast improvement for many of the POWs who had grown up in “cold water flats” in Germany, according to former Fort Robinson, Nebraska, POW … The American Red Cross inspected the camps to monitor conditions, but there were few complaints, as the German POWs had heard rumors of the horrible conditions in Russian POW camps. ...for possible inclusion in JMVH. We marched about 20km the first day, starting at about 4 am and passing the main Stalag Luft 3 camp (which seemed empty) on the way. Prisoners were usually housed in one-storey wooden barracks which contained bunk beds (two or three high) and a charcoal burning stove in the middle of the room. You can also buy the book by clicking on the buttons to the left. It was not serious luckily, but the Luftwaffe was genuinely upset and arranged that any future cases would have a German speaking POW to accompany them. Even in POW camps in Germany, Soviet POWs had often been left for months to vegetate in trenches, dugouts or sod houses. Oflags (ringed in red on the map) were German prison camps for officers while Stalags (ringed in blue) were for both officers and enlisted men. During World War II, the Germans held American POWs in a system of nearly 100 camps spread throughout German-occupied territory. Because he spoke German, Geoff Cornish and one med. We stayed there a second day and, being very tired, enjoyed this. We had started off later that day and it was almost dark when we arrived at our destination but we were allocated a farm outhouse again, fortunately with lights. Well how are things at Spilsby”…my home base. Street names were German and even the Our cart contained as much medical supplies as possible, plus invalid comfort parcels and our own food and personal items. 1. Hot water was made available twice daily from the camp kitchen in jugs. A historian of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey, he is a publisher of popular history, a podcaster, and online course creator. To order this book, please visit its online sales page at Amazon or Barnes & Noble. A bit disconcerting for a start and he asked a lot of questions but I feigned loss of memory, pointing to the cuts on my head. For a comprehensive list of World War 2 facts, including the primary actors in the war, causes, a comprehensive timeline, and bibliography, click here. He recalls making toys one … Consequently, morale was fairly high and food was reasonable at least initially although this degenerated. In addition, individual Red Cross parcels provided things like scarves, gloves, woolen hats and underclothing. The more severe and those who were pyrexial would be admitted to the Lazaret. Canada operated prison camps for interned civilians during the First and Second World Wars, and for 34,000 combatant German prisoners of war (POWs) during the Second World War. Skin Lesions. Our supply of aspirins and APC went down very rapidly. Prisoners were usually housed in one-storey wooden barracks which contained bunk beds (two or three high) and a charcoal burning stove in the middle of the room. As would be expected, common things were common. Some of the Stalag camps were properly named Stalag Luft, short for Stammlager Luftwaffe. This case was partly managed in the Lazaret and Hildebrand took him for X-rays to watch progress. Impetigo was quite common and usually responded to Gentian Violet Solution. He ran out of his hut at night and collided with a Hundfuhrer, a guard with an Alsatian dog. The Germans and Italians had almost twice as many, 235,473 with a death rate of 4% (242 Australians). Many German captives were sent to labour camps in the depths of Russia, where hunger, exhaustion and freezing conditions killed thousands. Some German and Italian POWs even worked at the Erie Proving Ground in Ottawa County, which was known as Camp Perry Proving Ground during World War II. Parts of the camp in between huts were used as ‘allotments’ to grow a few vegetables but the soil was very poor, although potatoes and tomatoes would grow. This was 5 to 6 kilometers away from the main camp which also had a North, South, Centre, East and West compound plus a jail, a hospital and a German ‘vorlager’. 1800 gm bread (Dauerbrot) (1 loaf = 4 pounds), Vegetables (Swedes, Khol, Rabi, Cabbage, Peas in   season), 100 gm (4oz) Bratlings Pulver or Semolina, 100-160 gm Meat (mince or beef or pork) per 2   weeks. These were either Unteroffiziers or Gefreiters (Corporal or Soldiers) who wore blue dungarees with a belt and a small Mauser pistol. At intervals the train would stop and all the prisoners would be expected to get out of the train to either relieve themselves or empty their bowels by the side of the track. During World War II, 300,000 German Prisoners of War were interred in the United States. Conditions depended on: whether the camp was purpose built where the camp was what the climate was like who else was in the camp the personality of the officer in charge. In the European theater, 93,941 Americans were held as prisoners of war (POWs). All this time the 400 or so US Army Air Corps who had shared Belaria with us had been our companions but now the Germans separated us and moved them off in a different direction. As the bombing of Germany increased, the rail communications were increasingly weakened. We had just dropped 13,000 pounds of bombs… a 4,000 pound “cookie” plus incendiaries and we were stooging along at 163 mph (280 km/hr) taking infra-red photographs for the first time in WW2, when we were attacked from below by a German night fighter which hit the port wing and fuselage, setting the wing on fire and wrecking my instrument panel. POW camps run by the Germans during World War II. Metal splints like lattice were sometimes to be had and used again and again, either padded with cotton wool or bandages. The third side was eventually used to build extra huts as the camp was expanded to accommodate extra prisoners. Wemer then became Adjutant and had a Leutnant as Abwehr (Defence) Officer and he was in charge of Felwebel Glemnitz and seceral “ferrets”. Since it is the duty of POWs (especially officers) to escape when possible, much camp activity was geared to acquiring maps, making “ausweiss” (passes), civil clothing from uniforms, photographs and of course tunneling. Prisoners would then be transported to a prisoner of war camp. Food supplies for POWs in German camps varied in portions and quality depending on how well the Germans were doing, so the theory was that the Red Cross parcels would provide an extra 1,000 calories a day. This was done by having the one carpenter in our midst making seats from Red Cross boxes in which the parcels were brought to the camp. This was performed by Monteuuis with Cornish giving Evipan. He was the pilot of a mini-sub that damaged outside of Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941. Cit. In the winter, we hacked the frozen ground and made a small circular mound, 3-4 inches high and about 25 metres across on the playing field and flooded this with water to make an ice rink and play ice hockey, courtesy of skates sent by the Red Cross. There was no regularity about this and we had to make them last. If it looked like one was getting too curious about activities related to escaping some body (usually a German speaker) would be detailed to engage him in conversation and so head him off. Bad luck! In the camp, POWs were ‘on parade’ twice daily for roll call and the ferrets used to inspect the huts while we were parading. If this worked, the question of how long to continue with medicine (being conscious of conserving resources) arose. Another patient was Tommy Hughes who had a badly cut head, with shaven hair and masses of bandages; Ginger Rutherford, a Geordie with a lot of cuts and bruises, and a young spitfire pilot, Stan Griffith, with a huge black-eye and frostbite alter loosing a boot. This could be melted off by heating the empty tins and put over the puncture holes made by the Germans and so reseal the tins. This page was last edited on 14 July 2020, at 16:09 (UTC). It had been planned by Goering himself as a “super” camp because he was a WWI flyer himself. URTIs were frequent, from rhinitis to tonsillitis to bronchitis; only one or two asthma attacks. In the communist realms, the conditions that German POWs, many just kids, endured on the Eastern Front were beyond grim and did not follow any accepted protocol for treatment of captured soldiers. We traveled about 15 km that day and later in the morning, the SBO as part of his routine came back to the tail and of the column. Elastoplast was scarce but gauze dressings we available to be used dry or with petroleum jelly or icthyol or even acriflavine we made up from tablets dissolved in water. Later a case of deep melancholia was, Ampoules of Sterile Water & sodium chloride, Prontosil Powder (M&B 693 -Sulphapyridine). Prisoner-of-war camps in the United States during World War II.. The overall experience of life in a prison camp was low level, persistent discomfort. Thank you for your download, we hope you are satisfied with our software. Some men would be put to work either around the camp or in the locality. In Reprinted Articles  Eisenhower's German POW Death Camps - A US Guard's Story By Martin Brech 1-28-2 In October, 1944, at age eighteen, I was drafted into the U.S. army. Generally they were quite helpful. Tinea cruris & pedis was quite common and usually responded to Whitfield’s ointment. Sixteen million Americans served in World War II. Their prisoners of war lived several years (up till five) in regions with German names, with towns and villages with German names. Urinary Infections received mist. Then we were taken to part of a German maternity hospital under guard in Berlin. In the mid 1990's, Jensen along with members of the Yellowstone Historical Society, were the first to do extensive research on the camps in Montana. As Soviet ground forces approached some POW camps in early 1945, German guards forced western Allied POWs to walk long distances towards central Germany, often in extreme winter weather conditions. Did you know? However, army pattern clothing became available, ration controlled, possibly obtained through Red Cross sources but undoubtedly some was material captured by the Germans in various places. Part 1 – Phthisis, consumption and the White Plague. . Several hundred gallons of petrol burning less than 20 feet from you is an occasion for rapid action in the way of evacuation of the area, which five of us did before the plane blew up or crashed. These are the camps that housed captured members of the enemy armed forces, crews of ships of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft. There were 4 WO NCOs who between them did the cooking, cleaning, linen washing and attended the fires etc. It had an examining couch and stools for patients to sit on while being treated. For a … This was when numbers in the camp shot up and Dr. Monteuuis, who was known as ‘Twee’, after find finding out that I had been a medical student, asked me to join the Lazaret staff to help out, about April 1944. The prisoners were held in some fifty German POW camps, of several types. It is estimated that, out of 257,000 POWs, about 80,000 were subject to such marches and up to 3,500 of them died as a result. 2. By Eric Stephenson Dresden was home to Stalag*(prisoners of war camp) IV-A or 4-A of the German prisoner of war camps. As previously stated common things were common: Bruises and Sprains These received Liquor Hammamelis, a bandage and when appropriate, heat and massage. Blisters and ‘flu’ were rife and the SBO managed to persuade the German commandant to take a few of the sicker POWs to the local army hospital at Muskau. Supplies came through the courtesy of the Germans and Red Cross via Geneva. German POW camps of WW II are hard to locate today. Union was played but the ground was very stony and injuries were common. Using an old kit bag, a rough pump could he made and connected to the pipes so produced to provide at air circulation underground for the tunnelers. Many Minnesotans are unfamiliar with this episode in history. He was looking for patients as we entered the camp at Belaria. Place: Germany Copyright: Public . He was pigeon-toed and constantly gave the Germans the idea he was a bit mad, walking round the compound pretending he had a dog on a lead. We only had one slice of bread for breakfast and had to march 15 km that day but we were able to hitch our cart to a horse drawn wagon going our way. The German POW camps in Michigan were an interesting part of Michigan's history that I am glad to have found. Within the perimeter, a wooden rail was placed about half a metre from the ground and 3 metres from the wire to mark the limits of movement for prisoners. Of the almost 100,000 Germans captured following the Battle of Stalingrad, only 5,000 survived the war. World War I. Hostilities ended six months after the United States saw its first action in World War I, and only a relatively small number of German prisoners of war reached the U.S. He survived. America’s first POW in World War Two wasn’t German, but Japanese. Of these, over 120,000 lived out part of the war behind barbed wire. North Carolina had 2 major POW base camps: specially barbed-wire-enclosed camps within the larger American military bases at Camp Butner and at Fort Bragg. We stayed there a second day and had a very heavy sick parade that day. More severe cases (frequent bowel motions not seen to be responding to medicine & diet, perhaps pyrexial) were admitted and Twee would perform the ‘fork test’… a stool specimen was obtained and if faeces passed through fork prongs, bed and sulphaguanidine was the treatment. All these gave some purpose to life. Scott Michael Rank, Ph.D., is the editor of History on the Net and host of the History Unplugged podcast. Conditions for workers in Japanese POW camps were extremely bad and many people died as a result of the inhumane treatment. Sycosis barbi hit several and I recall 2 cases of erysipelas. This consisted of a daily German ration (q.v.) Family life was able to continue, and 153 children were born in the camp. Site created in November 2000. Red Cross parcels, flown over to Axis POW camps, were intended to help ease the problem of hunger for the captured servicemen. ... April is the Ohio staff writer for Only in Your State. My leg and arm were plastered and 2 days later we were taken by train to Frankfurt-am-Rhein to Dulag Luft, a holding camp, where we were put in solitary confinement. In the ensuing melee the POW w back to his hut but was shot in the stomach and was taken to hospital. If we had it, to reduce the risk of crystalluria, or kidney damage. 2-hrly Bronchitis, received inhalations and mist Ipecac. Classes in German, French and even Russian started. The Germans had done a head-count as we left that morning and now the Oberst found he had “lost” 10 POWs but 16 guards had gone ‘wek’. About 400,000 Axis prisoners of war captured during World War II were dispatched to 500 camps around the United States. Still, they also had some Schnapps! In the first months of Operation Barbarossa, few Germans were captured by Red Army forces.After the Battle of Moscow and the retreat of the German forces the number of prisoners in the Soviet prisoner of war camps rose to 120,000 by early 1942. He had been invalided from the Stalingrad front but I did not discover his name. German POWs in the USSR In the first months of Operation Barbarossa, few Germans were captured by Red Army forces.After the Battle of Moscow and the retreat of the German forces the number of prisoners in the Soviet prisoner of war camps rose to 120,000 by early 1942. In total Some 95,000 American and 135,000 British and Commonwealth servicemen were incarcerated in prisoners of war (POW) camps in Germany during World War II. 2 It dropped to about 1 between 6. Part of Lists of Prisoner-of-War Camps section in the Prisoner-of-war camp article. His father was French and his mother Spanish. At ground level, between the rows, coils of barbed wire were laid. 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