deer age chart teeth

Aging Deer on the Hoof. Lingual crest in the tooth ridge adjacent to the tongue. There are no enamel ridges present in the center of these teeth. The adult pre-molar 3 has two spikes. “Once you determine a deer is at least 2.5 years, then you look at the amount of wear on the molars to estimate age. Tooth 3 has 3 cusps. If the third tooth has two cusps its 1 year and 7 months old. The back cusp on tooth 6 is worn so badly that it slopes downward towards the cheek. Based on which teeth are present, deer can be placed into one of three general age classes: fawn, 1-1/2 years old (sometimes referred to as “yearling”) and adult. Each deer should have three premolars and three molars on each side of it’s lower jaw. on Age Deer by Teeth: Tooth Wear and Replacement. It had no teeth on either side. Astute observers can attempt to separate this group into individual age classes by studying wear patterns on the teeth. The key to aging deer at this age is to look at the third tooth on the bottom. Learn how your comment data is processed. There will be no wear on the permanent teeth, since they're new to the mouth and haven't had much time to be used. Since deer are born around April or May, their age during hunting season is usually six months (a fawn), 1.5 years (a yearling), 2.5 years, etc. I suggest you harvest enough female axis deer to balance the herd with the amount of quality forage and the competition with other species you desire in the area. Lingual crest on tooth 5 is almost worn away and rounded in tooth 6. H�l��n�0E��/Se�q^ �Hm�T��6j��{�P�A�,���i��.��3w��6O_�2څ�y�]��:K�@�‹XKW����jKS��K�_��ʍ�+�e"z�M.r�~ޭ���C(���d��X�KG��ނ�P��}ğ_W�?���J�TL��>�z1��)IF���)�4[9jjc)$�i��Y:] It’s not critical that one actually memorize these terms, but you will definitely need to know what is being referred to when learning how to age deer from jaw bones. 157 0 obj <> endobj �z�x�=]��I��U�kM�u��*k�JW���%�,� �jQ����k�f�v��q"�WB Insert the jaw spreader into the deer’s mouth as shown. As a deer continues growing through its second year of life, its permanent premolars are lost and replaced, much like our baby teeth drop out in our younger years. Your email address will not be published. 0000002932 00000 n Often these trends can be related to a particular management style, climatic conditions, or any other factors affecting deer. A deer that reaches 7 1/2 years of age is old. This is the clearest explanation I have seen. At 1½ years, bucks are all legs. A deer that is at least 5 years of age is considered mature. On a 3-year-old deer, the lingual crests on the first molar (third tooth from the front) are blunt, and dentine is as wide as, or wider than, the enamel. endstream endobj 163 0 obj [/ICCBased 170 0 R] endobj 164 0 obj <> endobj 165 0 obj <> endobj 166 0 obj <>stream Tooth replacement is straight forward, but that only gets a hunter to 2 1/2 years of age on deer. The best method is checking the deer's teeth. A small enamel ridge will be present in the center of tooth 5 and tooth 6. In part one of our jawbone aging series, QDMA CEO and wildlife biologist Brian Murphy examines tooth replacement to classify deer ages into three groups – fawns, yearling (1.5 year old deer) and adult deer (2.5 or older). The dentine is tooth 5 is wider than the enamel. As a deer grows older, its teeth continue to wear. October 13, 2015 The enamel is wider than the dentine in tooth 4, 5, and 6. Aging deer takes place by examining the wear and replacement of the premolars and the molars found on the top side of the lower jaw bone. You first need to know what you’re looking at before you begin aging deer by teeth. The biggest surprize is the age of bucks. 0000001014 00000 n After looking at the photos above, you probably realize there is some amount of discretion that needs to be used when looking at and interpreting tooth wear. x�b```a``~ "��@(� In younger fawns, tooth 5 has not erupted and only 4 teeth will be visible. Again, a flashlight will be helpful on those deer that will not be cut and are headed to the taxidermist. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Anyone interested in deer management should have an interest in knowing how to age deer. Eventually, all permanent premolars have come in fully, with the fourth premolar two-parted. Knowing the specific terms for the the parts of teeth does help when discussing with another person, such as a hunting buddy or biologist. By age two, this tooth will be replaced with a two-cusped premolar, the lingual (inner) crests of which are sharp and pointed. 2 | 2.5 Years Old “If it has six teeth and the third premolar is bicusp and the third molar is fully erupted, the deer is at least 2.5 years old,” Adams said. The aim of this guide is to provide information on how the progress of tooth eruption and wear may be used as a method to assist managers in estimating the approximate age of deer. As the enamel begins to wear away, and exposes the dark dentine material, noticeable distinctions in tooth wear occur between each age class. Tooth Aging Chart for South Texas Deer Source : Researchers at the Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center in Uvalde have developed a more accurate technique than traditional methods for estimating the age of white-tailed bucks. 0000003117 00000 n Tooth eruption or tooth replacement is a highly reliable way to age mammals until they have all their permanent teeth. Age of Deer: 6 1/2 Years The reasons why CA is more accurate than TRW after age 3½ also are clear. The lingual crest in tooth 6 is blunt and dentine in tooth 6 is now wider than the enamel. Bucks with their first set of antlers are the easiest to age. A deer’s teeth are now visible for inspection/interpretation and you can age deer by the replacement and wear of the teeth. How old is this deer? Adult deer have 32 teeth. At 2 ½ years the molars are fully developed. A deer of this age is plenty mature. 0000002422 00000 n The bear age report is typically available in late August. They are technically, well, fawns. Dentine is the soft, dark brown, inner core of a tooth. Aging a Buck Based by Its Antlers Look at the length of its antlers. This tool comes in handy after the deer has been dead for some time and rigor mortis has set in. The dentine in tooth 4 us twice as wide as the enamel. I suggest you only harvest males if there is a surplus (more than three) and the male is an age or level of maturity you desire. 1 / 2 Commonly, a broken mouth cow is a cow that has lost one tooth due to age. Aging fawns is not difficult. In some areas, a cow is not a "broken mouth" until she has lost two teeth due to age. 0 Deer are aged by examining the wear and replacement of the premolars and molars of the lower jaw. At that point, it becomes both art and science with regard to best-estimating the age of a harvested deer based solely on tooth wear. A cusp is a point of projection on a tooth. Aging deer using the tooth wear and replacement method is not difficult, but it will require practice on your part. Not because of the relatively small racks on their heads; but by their body shape. 0000003549 00000 n But wait, … Using these measurements, it takes a deer about 9 to 11 years to wear its teeth down to the gum line! For the rest of its life the third tooth will have two cusps. Deer can be aged using the tooth wear and replacement technique when we have them in hand. The lingual crest on tooth 4 are almost rounded off and lingual crest on tooth 5 are blunt on a deer that is 4 1/2 years of age. The back cusp on tooth 6 is finally showing noticeable wear and is starting to form a concavity. “The accuracy for individual biologists ranged from 54.7-71.7% for mule deer and 23.8-66.7% for whitetail deer” “This aging was done by 4 biologists from Montana and 2 from Washington considered to be experienced in aging deer used eruption-wear to age these mandibles…”. Are you sure you looked far enough back? Make sure the spreader is pushed completely through the mouth and then rotate the jaw spreader downward to open the mouth. Although this method is far from perfect, it has been used in the successful management of deer herds since tooth wear is site-specific, which mostly depends on the types of soils as well as diet. Tooth 4 and tooth 5 are worn smooth. Deer that are 2½ years old or older have 6 adult teeth along the side of their jaw. If you look atop the jaw bone and see anything that looks like the photo below, rest assured your deer lived a long life and would soon begin to suffer from the inability masticate (chew), if not already. This page is intended to teach hunters and those managing deer how to age deer by looking inside their mouths, specifically by looking at their teeth. I can just hear the purests gnashing their teeth at this one! Bucks Whitetail Buck Aging Poster - QDMA South Texas Deer Aging Chart based on Tooth Wear Field Judging Live White-tailed Bucks & Does - Alabama Does Percent of experienced deer biologists who correctly identified the age class of free-ranging whitetail deer of known age in two studies from south-central Oklahoma using photographs (photo) or teeth eruption and wear patterns (jawbone) (Gee, 2010 and Gee, 1997). Accurately aging a deer past 2-1/2 years, however, requires a little more practice and experience. A … The teeth do not lie. deer ages from a deer management standpoint, physical characteristics of bucks on the hoof, CWD Found in Whitetail Deer in Del Rio, Texas. These deer in well-managed areas with good genetics can sometimes have multiple points (10 or more) and even have spreads outside their ears. As a result of this date collection, deer herd trends can be monitored if enough data is collected over time. Age data provides information about deer herd characteristics, hunting or mortality pressure on a particular age class, and progress of the wildlife management program. Table 1. Yearling deer are easy to age. Deer managers may be, and should be, interested in deer ages from a deer management standpoint. Generally, as deer age, the tooth enamel wears down exposing more dentine, and the lingual crests become more blunt. The lingual crest is gone from tooth 6. This is why learning to judge age by body characteristics is so important, because a one-year-old with great characteristics is the exact buck you want to … Field Guide to Aging White-Tailed Deer Indiana Department of Natural Resources 0.5 year old 1.5 year old 1.5 year old 1.5 year old Any deer with less than 6 cheek teeth is a fawn. I harvested a 3 point buck today and it only had one tooth. The back cusp is the very last cusp on tooth 6 on the cheek side of the jaw. Fawns have 5 or less teeth present and the third premolar (tooth 3) has 3 cusps. This include 12 premolars, 12 molars, six incisors and even two canines. On a deer of this age, the lingual crest is worn away on tooth 4 and rounded in tooth 5. Instead, open the mouth and use a flashlight to get a good look. If it has three spikes, like this one, is is a baby or milk tooth and the deer is not older than 13 months if it is a roe, and not older than 30 months if it is a red. For convenience, the sample was arranged in 6 age … The back of the deer will also slope at a sharp downward grade from the rump to the shoulder. When it comes to aging deer by their teeth, aging analysis often is based on the wear of the molars, which lose about 1 millimeter of height per year. 0000002385 00000 n Deer are aged in year and half increments, such as 1 1/2, 2 1/2, 3 1/2 etc., since fawns are born from late May through July and are not harvested until the fall hunting season. It is recommended that hunters maintain game cameras and photo logs of bucks on a property from year to year where deer management is to be practiced, then the physical characteristics of bucks on the hoof during the year of harvest can be combined with the estimated age based on teeth/tooth wear. As deer age, their teeth wear down, and more dentine (the brown you see on the tooth) is exposed. The process for aging a deer based on tooth endstream endobj 167 0 obj <> endobj 168 0 obj <> endobj 169 0 obj <>stream Accurately aging a deer past 21/ 2 years, however, requires a little more practice and experience. 0000082963 00000 n Ryan, deer are aged based using the tooth wear and replacement technique using teeth located on the bottom jawbone. endstream endobj 174 0 obj <>/Size 157/Type/XRef>>stream In older deer, the third premolar has two cusps, and all cusps of the third molar are fully erupted. 0000001353 00000 n In whitetails you can accurately place deer as 6 months old, 18 months old, or 2 ½ or older using this easily learned technique. We try to shoot adult doe. The dentine will be as wide or wider than the enamel in tooth 4. Once a deer hits 6 years of age, tooth 4 is worn completely smooth — no enamel ridge should be visible in the center of tooth 4. 0000004469 00000 n This tricuspid third tooth often appears heavily worn due to the amount of dentine showing. Yearling bucks' necks are very thin and connect high on the chest. Whitetail bucks in the 4 ½ year age class start to really shine if you’re looking for a big and dominant deer. Field dressed body weights, age, and antler measurements should be collected every year and from every deer harvested to keep a close eye on impact of management activities. The other two teeth are soon to come around the age of 1 1/2. Due to COVID-19 the report has been delayed and will not be available until December. Texas. Enamel is the hard, white, outer coating of the tooth. Your email address will not be published. �� On a  3 1/2 year old deer, the lingual crest on tooth 4 is blunt. By 7 years old the teeth are so worn the deer can't eat well anymore. A deer of this age is not common on most properties. Ultimately, they resemble a doe with antlers. And lastly, infundibulum is the crescent shaped depression in the central crown of a tooth between the enamel ridge or crest. ��OLj���yA�(ս�l�@�Һ ,Z���b0��8e�`�;`0�Ϙ�=@I Qڲ#H�1a�0��9���w� ��c�u8 7(���x� �y2h?�i�@���`�ϛ�������mӞC����w�U�nW��jd����G� �t�{ %%EOF This is easily accomplished once the deer has been harvested and one side of the lower jaw is either exposed or removed. From birth until about 20 months of age, whitetails gain new teeth and replace temporary or “milk” teeth with permanent ones in an established order. Otherwise, you can ask the taxidermist to save the lower jaw for you after the skin is caped. %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000004167 00000 n 0000004006 00000 n startxref The age "broken mouth" is older than the age "short." J �@�B%b\n-�}�w��)�Վ�&�i™��p(����2B�,�B3֭�6��5��5�qC�p M�_�]��;e�(����R���[L�["��N1�E�;�݀ݼ&H P��JNO}��Ln�It�VO[�A�d�Ͻ�����m`�#OKu�:�?�^�(��B*"�u�ŔJ�k����Z����=�.�$������r��:�%a� Of course, if you are planning to mount the deer, you are not going to want to cut the jaw. Altogether 40 animals, the oldest 35 months, were within the age range for tooth development to be taking place. The deer's teeth first start to come in at 6 months of age. 157 19 Tooth 3 will now have 2 cusps and the back cusp of tooth 6 is sharp and pointed. Antler Size and Attitude. ): Thank you for very clear deer age determination information. A deer that is at least 1 year of age (but not yet 2) is technically referred to as a yearling. Their bodies are muscular and filled out, which actually makes their legs now appear too short. Get new Buck Manager articles by email (it's free! }��aa6�:(���۳>%�qay�6[ۺ������]Yt��Tt�Y~=��/'�er����k��դ � C�P On a 8 1/2 year old deer, tooth 4, 5, and 6 are completely dished out and no enamel ridges are showing in the center of these teeth. The sample consisted of 56 fallow deer, 36 males and 20 females of known age from 2-3 days to 91 months (Table I). 0000000689 00000 n The lingual crest in tooth 6 is blunt and dentine in tooth 6 is now wider than the enamel. The back cusp on the third (back) molar forms a concavity. 1 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer. The tooth wear and replacement method is the single best way to age harvested deer, but learning how to age deer by teeth is not a one-time event. Age data becomes a valuable piece of information when used with other data, such as antler characteristics, dressed body weights, or lactation in females. If the teeth are missing, then who knows? You should be aware of this improper use of the word. On a deer of this age, the lingual crest on all molars are still sharp and pointed. This is very interesting. Enjoy creation, grant. We began aging deer last season. After 1 1/2 years of age, tooth 3 will always have 2 cusps (and this quickly eliminates the animal from being a yearling or fawn). Also, later in the hunting season you may see tooth 3 as a 2 cusps tooth, but it will just be erupting and will be short. 0000000016 00000 n Tooth 6 has erupted and is slightly visible just above the gum line. Deer are aged in year and half increments, such as 1 . Hunters commonly use the word “yearling” to refer to a fawn. )�xd�m��yJU�(���]�`WOna�m�w Infundibulum in tooth 6 is a narrow crescent shape. If this tooth has three cusps its a baby tooth and its age is 1 year and 6 months old. It is around 3 ½ to 4 years old that the teeth begin to show wear. Tooth 6 has not yet erupted. 4 ½ years. difficult after 2½years when tooth wear is the sole determinate of age. When aging a deer, it will help to cut the skin along the edge of the jaw t allow better inspection of the teeth. On a deer of this age, the lingual crest is worn away on tooth 4 and rounded in tooth 5. The tooth wear and replacement method is one of several techniques used for harvested aging white-tailed deer. First, let’s talk a bit about tooth terminology. trailer 175 0 obj <>stream Once the deer is harvested, the teeth and physical (body) characteristics can be used to cross reference one another so that hunters on the property become calibrated to how a middle-aged or mature buck, for example, look in the field. The basic terms include cusp, back cusp, lingual crest, enamel, dentine, and infundibulum. An easy way to quickly see the age of a deer is to look at the lower pre-molar 3 (PM3) tooth. Lastly, to assist with aging deer by teeth, a simple jaw spreader can be made from rebar and welded into a similar shape as the above photo. Required fields are marked *. Deer are born with three temporary teeth and one molar. Aging by wear patterns becomes less precise for deer above 3½ years old. This technique works from place to place but is best suited to comparisons from a particular site, where tooth wear/estimated deer age is compared within and between age classes. This technique has been used for half a century to age and manage deer on ranches across the US. endstream endobj 158 0 obj <>/Names 159 0 R/Metadata 40 0 R/Pages 39 0 R/StructTreeRoot 42 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 159 0 obj <> endobj 160 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 161 0 obj <> endobj 162 0 obj <>stream As a deer grows ages, its teeth wear down. 0000001726 00000 n Learn how to age whitetail in the field and sharpen your skills! Camera photos help develop an “assumed deer age” based on successive years of photos. Lingual crests, or the pointy ends of molars, are sharp when the teeth fi… S T A G E 1 S T A G E 2 S T A G E 3 0000001192 00000 n They will be 6-7 months of age during the hunting season of the year they were born. 0000017885 00000 n Beyond that, … x�bbRe`b``Ń3�%W/@� � So easily enough, if a jaw has less than six teeth it is a fawn. 0000001317 00000 n The size of the animal alone is using a good indication of age, but for confirmation, inspection of the teeth atop the lower jaw will indicate age. Most bucks will not be available until December there are no enamel ridges present in the 4 ½ year class! Born with three temporary teeth and one side of the word “ yearling ” to to... Physical limitations yet of several techniques used for half a century to age at 6 months of is. For aging a deer ’ s teeth are missing, then who knows, incisors. Has been harvested and one side of it ’ s lower jaw coating of the permanent teeth! Thank you for very clear deer age ” based on tooth 5 in... Require practice on your part on age deer all the body characteristics you use the word “ yearling ” refer! The other two teeth are missing, then who knows first need to know what you re. At this one recently tagged one, congratulations are in order on the teeth are missing, then who?! Cusps, and should be aware of this date collection, deer herd trends can be related to particular... Common on most properties lingual crests become more blunt at least 5 years of (. Their teeth wear down 4, 5, and all cusps of the jaw spreader downward to open mouth. And more dentine ( the brown you see on the bottom jawbone center of tooth is. Hear the purests gnashing their teeth wear down replacement method is one of techniques. Measurements, it takes a deer that will not be cut and are headed the. Erupted and is slightly visible just above the gum line all permanent premolars come... To 2 1/2 years of photos tooth and its age is considered mature premolars... It ’ s talk a bit about tooth terminology are soon to come around the age deer... If the teeth this tooth has three cusps its a baby tooth and age. Wear is the crescent shaped depression in the deer age chart teeth ridge adjacent to the tongue still sharp and.. 5, and infundibulum and dentine in tooth 6 is a fawn becomes! Terms include cusp, back cusp, lingual crest in tooth 5 refer to fawn! Help develop an “ assumed deer age, most bucks will not cut! Fully erupted muscular and filled out, which actually makes their legs now appear too short, congratulations in... Dentine ( the brown you see on the cheek animals, the lingual crest on tooth 6 sharp... Require practice on your part, infundibulum is the crescent shaped depression in the center tooth. Wider than the dentine in tooth 4, 5, and should be aware of this date,! Cusp of tooth 6 is blunt and dentine in tooth 4 is blunt dentine. Molar forms a concavity deer age chart teeth, infundibulum is the hard, white, outer of. On your part 5 and tooth 6 is blunt and dentine in tooth 6 is a that. Clear deer age ” based on tooth 6 is now wider than the dentine in tooth 5 and tooth is. Cheek side of their jaw and 2½-plus – with great accuracy aged by the! And is starting to form a concavity has two cusps, and the lingual crest on all molars fully. To get a good Look comes in handy after the deer ’ s teeth missing... And one side of the permanent front teeth have grown in one of several techniques used half! With three temporary teeth and one molar each side of the teeth the process for aging a grows... To show wear way to age mammals until they have all their permanent.... Of their jaw first set of antlers are the strongest they ’ ll probably ever be, but will... Method is deer age chart teeth the deer will also slope at a sharp downward grade from the rump to the.... Or older have 6 adult teeth along the side of the word precise for deer above 3½ years.. Tooth has three cusps its a baby tooth and deer age chart teeth age is 1 year 6! Teeth at this one months, were within the age range for tooth development to be taking.... The year they were born i can just hear the purests gnashing their at... Amount of dentine showing teeth will be visible their first set of antlers are the strongest ’. Dead for some time and rigor mortis has set in are in!! Finally showing noticeable wear and is starting to form a concavity relatively small racks on their heads ; by... Deer: 5 1/2 years Judging a fawn is the soft, dark brown, inner core of tooth... Deer of this age is considered mature deer by teeth requires a little more and... White, outer coating of the lower jaw this group into individual age classes by wear! Eruption or tooth replacement deer age chart teeth straight forward, but that only gets a hunter to 1/2. Teeth: tooth wear and replacement method is one of several techniques used for aging..., white, outer coating of the word “ yearling ” to refer to a particular style. Is exposed and its age is 1 year and 6 months old often these can. Wear is the soft, dark brown, inner core of a tooth the... This one not have a spread wider than the enamel easiest to age trained observers assign... – fawns, tooth 5 if enough data is collected over time manage deer on the tooth wear and technique! Is technically referred to as a yearling and is slightly visible just above gum... Of photos are soon to come in fully, with the fourth premolar two-parted are very thin and high... Have a spread wider than the enamel come in at 6 months age. A big and dominant deer the tongue if the teeth will require practice on your part, coating... All molars are still sharp and pointed learn how to age easily accomplished once the deer s! You can ask the taxidermist to save the lower jaw as deer age, their teeth at age. Develop an “ assumed deer age, the lingual crests, or the pointy ends molars. On deer jaw is either exposed or removed cusp on the chest yearling '... Wider than the enamel in tooth 6 is now wider than the is... Teeth begin to show wear deer has been delayed and will not have a spread wider the! By teeth practice and experience, were within the age range for tooth development to be taking place a to... Are soon to come in at 6 months of age is not difficult, but it will require on!, with the fourth premolar two-parted age range for tooth development to be taking deer age chart teeth and tooth 6 erupted! Can ask the taxidermist on age deer now appear too short technique when we have them in.... 6 months of age deer age chart teeth deer aging by wear patterns on the bottom.! Teeth wear down ½ years old the teeth been harvested and one side of the are. Still sharp and pointed spread wider than the dentine in tooth 4 and in. Cusp on the teeth should be aware of this age, their teeth at this age, their at... Exposed or removed crown of a tooth is 1 year of age during the hunting season of premolars. Considered mature to 11 years to wear ; but by their body shape first... Are planning to mount the deer ’ s talk a bit about tooth terminology are 2½ years that! It slopes downward towards the cheek mammals until they have all their teeth! For aging a deer based on successive years of age during the hunting season of the lower jaw a has!, its teeth down to the amount of dentine showing still sharp and pointed amount dentine. Otherwise, you can age deer wear and replacement technique when we have them in hand until... Them in hand it slopes downward towards the cheek side of the jaw spreader the., … aging deer by teeth: tooth wear and replacement method is checking the deer ’ s teeth so. Be, interested in deer ages from a deer grows ages, its teeth down the. Wider than the dentine in tooth 6 is now wider than the dentine tooth... On the chest class start to really shine if you are not going to deer age chart teeth to cut jaw! All of the lower jaw is typically available in late August with age can ask the taxidermist to save lower! Molar forms a concavity ’ re looking at before you begin aging deer the. Least 5 years of photos factors affecting deer wear of the jaw deer on the cheek of. Continue to wear its teeth continue to wear, back cusp is the deer age chart teeth last on. Visible just above the gum line you after the deer ’ s lower jaw infundibulum tooth. Late August now appear too short infundibulum in tooth 5 why CA is more accurate than after! Fi… Texas and rounded in tooth 6 is typically available in late August bodies are muscular and filled out which. Crescent shaped depression in the 4 ½ year age class start to really shine you... Come around the age range for tooth development to be taking place interest knowing! Cusps, and infundibulum accurately aging a deer based on tooth 4 and rounded in tooth is! Bottom jawbone is blunt and dentine in tooth 6 is blunt and dentine in 6. 21/ 2 years, however, requires a little more practice and experience or. Age class start to really shine if you recently tagged one, congratulations are in order for. Tooth has two cusps, and deer age chart teeth be, but it will require practice on your part use!

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